25 new genomes to celebrate 25 years of the Sanger Institute
Blackberry to robin, bush cricket to brown trout - the 25 species all reside in the UK
To commemorate the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute turning 25 in 2018, the Institute and its collaborators* are sequencing 25 new genomes. From the blackberry to the robin, bush cricket to brown trout, the 25 species all reside in the UK and represent the richness of species in this country. Twenty species have already been decided, and the remaining five will be voted for by the public and school children as part of ‘I’m a Scientist, Get Me Out of Here’**.
The results will be made publicly available and will lead to future studies to understand the biodiversity of the UK and aid the conservation and understanding of these species.
The Sanger Institute was founded in 1993 by Professor Sir John Sulston as part of the Human Genome Project. The Institute made the largest single contribution*** to the gold- standard sequence of the first human genome, which was published in 2003.
A genome is an organism’s complete set of genetic instructions written in DNA. Each genome contains all of the information needed to build that organism and allow it to grow and develop.
Since the landmark completion of the human genome, the Sanger Institute has become a globally recognised leader in the field of genomics. Many more important reference genomes have already been sequenced – from the mouse and zebrafish genomes to the pig, gorilla, mosquito and many others. Beyond animal species, infectious diseases and bacteria also feature prominently on the list of reference genomes, from salmonella and MRSA to chlamydia and malaria. All of these have offered up important insights about these species in health and disease.
Now, the Sanger Institute and its partners are comprehensively sequencing 25 species from the UK. This project is a small contribution to a much larger undertaking, where scientists from around the world are coming together to form a plan to sequence all life on Earth.
The high-quality genomes will open the door for scientists to use this information, and researchers could discover how UK species are responding to environmental pressures, and what secrets they hold in their genetics that enables them to flourish, or flounder.
“Twenty five years ago the field of genomics was a budding idea and its implications only dreamed of. Today the reality of genomics and biodata is that it is transforming our understanding, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases, ranging from cancer and heart disease to malaria and infections. The science and technology that is driving this era of discovery is accelerating our understanding of the human body, but also of the world around us.
“This project has come after many thoughtful conversations around the world with regard to how many of the species on our planet could be sequenced in the coming decades – in principle, all of them. We are embarking on our contribution to sequencing all life on Earth.”
Professor Sir Mike Stratton Director of the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute
“Through sequencing these 25 genomes, scientists will gain a better understanding of UK species, how they arrived here, their evolution, and how different species are adapting to a changing environment. The results could reveal hidden truths in these species, and will enable the scientific community to understand how our world is constantly changing and evolving around us. We want to celebrate the 25th anniversary of the Sanger Institute in a special ‘Sanger’ way, and I am excited to see how the 25 Genomes Project unfolds.”
Dr Julia Wilson Associate Director of the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute
This project has been made possible by PacBio® long-read sequencing technology, which generates high-quality genomes for assembly. The Institute is partnering with PacBio and other leaders in the technology sector, 10x Genomics and Illumina, to create the most comprehensive view of these genomes
The 25 species are divided into five categories depending on the qualities they share:
- Flourishing – species on the up in the UK;
- Floundering – endangered and declining species;
- Dangerous – invasive and harmful species;
- Iconic – quintessentially British species that we all recognise;
- Cryptic – species that are out of sight or indistinguishable from others based on looks alone.
“The Natural History Museum is proud to be collaborating with the Sanger Institute to celebrate their 25th birthday and also to celebrate the advances that molecular techniques such as genome sequencing can bring to the study of UK wildlife. The 80 million specimens we care for, from around the world, hold a wealth of genetic information that enables us to conduct innovative research, addressing global challenges. A focus on UK biodiversity with cutting edge technology is particularly welcome.”
Tim Littlewood Head of Life Sciences at The Natural History Museum
So far, twenty of the 25 species have been decided, and the remaining ‘big five’ will be voted for by school children and the public as part of ‘I’m a Scientist, Get Me Out of Here,’ from 6th November to 8th December 2017. Scientists and teams from the Sanger Institute, wider Wellcome Genome Campus, Natural History Museum, and other institutions will champion a species and go head to head to face the public vote. The final five standing will complete the set of species to send to the sequencers.
“It’s fantastic to be putting school students and the people of the UK in charge of the direction of our scientific research. Through chatting with scientists and voting using the online platform, they can steer this genomic research towards the species and issues they really care about.”
Lucy Robinson Citizen Science Programme Manager at the Natural History Museum
*This project is a collaborative effort involving many institutions. Our partners include:
- Natural History Museum, London
- Pacific Biosciences (PacBio)
- The National Trust
- The Wildlife Trust
- Nottingham Trent University
- Edinburgh University
- 10x Genomics
- Aberdeen Centre for Environmental Sustainability (ACES)
- Animal and Plant Health Agency
- Bumblebee Conservation Trust
- Centre for Ecology and Hydrology
- Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science (CEFAS)
- James Hutton Institute
- Mycorrhizal Systems Ltd
- Natural History Museum of Geneva
- Open Air Laboratories (OPAL)
- Orthoptera & Allied Insects
- Royal Botanical Garden Edinburgh
- Royal Society for the Protection of Birds (RSPB)
- University College Dublin
- University of Lincoln
- Wellcome Genome Campus Grounds Team
- Wildwood Trust
Vote for the final five species
**If you’d like to decide which final five species go forward to have their genome sequenced, visit the ‘I’m a Scientist, Get Me Out of Here’ website and register to vote: https://25genomes.imascientist.org.uk/
The Human Genome Project
***Of the 23 human pairs of chromosomes, eight were sequenced by researchers at the Sanger Institute and their collaborators.
To mark 25 years of the Sanger Institute, the Institute will also construct a 25th anniversary garden, full of medicinal plants, and plant a very special apple tree that was grown from Isaac Newton’s own apple seeds.
This project is supported by Wellcome.
Pacific Biosciences of California, Inc. (NASDAQ:PACB) offers sequencing systems to help scientists resolve genetically complex problems. Based on its novel Single Molecule, Real-Time (SMRT®) technology, Pacific Biosciences’ products enable: de novo genome assembly to finish genomes in order to more fully identify, annotate and decipher genomic structures; full-length transcript analysis to improve annotations in reference genomes, characterize alternatively spliced isoforms in important gene families, and find novel genes; targeted sequencing to more comprehensively characterize genetic variations; and real-time kinetic information for epigenome characterization. Pacific Biosciences’ technology provides high accuracy, ultra-long reads, uniform coverage, and the ability to simultaneously detect epigenetic changes. PacBio® sequencing systems, including consumables and software, provide a simple, fast, end-to-end workflow for SMRT Sequencing. More information is available at www.pacb.com
The Natural History Museum exists to inspire a love of the natural world and unlock answers to the big issues facing humanity and the planet. More than five million people visit the sites in South Kensington and Tring every year, and the website receives over 500,000 unique visitors a month. It is a world-leading science research centre, and through its unique collection and unrivalled expertise it is tackling issues such as food security, eradicating diseases and managing resource scarcity. www.nhm.ac.uk
10x Genomics is changing the definition of sequencing by providing an innovative genomics platform that dramatically upgrades the capabilities of existing sequencing technologies. This is achieved through a combination of new microfluidic science, chemistry and bioinformatics. By implementing GemCode™ Technology within the Chromium™ System, researchers can now, for the first time, find new structural variants, haplotypes and other valuable genomic information with comprehensive workflows for Single Cell, V(D)J, Genome, Exome and de novo Assembly applications that incorporate their pre-existing sequencing technologies. For more information, please visit http://www.10xgenomics.com
Illumina is improving human health by unlocking the power of the genome. Our focus on innovation has established us as the global leader in DNA sequencing and array-based technologies, serving customers in the research, clinical, and applied markets. Our products are used for applications in the life sciences, oncology, reproductive health, agriculture, and other emerging segments. To learn more, visit www.illumina.com and follow @illumina.
The European Bioinformatics Institute (EMBL-EBI) is a global leader in the storage, analysis and dissemination of large biological datasets. EMBL-EBI helps scientists realise the potential of ‘big data’ by enhancing their ability to exploit complex information to make discoveries that benefit humankind. EMBL-EBI is at the forefront of computational biology research, with work spanning sequence analysis methods, multi-dimensional statistical analysis and data-driven biological discovery, from plant biology to mammalian development and disease. We are part of the European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), an international, innovative and interdisciplinary research organisation funded by 22 member states and two associate member states, and are located on the Wellcome Genome Campus, one of the world’s largest concentrations of scientific and technical expertise in genomics. www.ebi.ac.uk
The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute is one of the world’s leading genome centres. Through its ability to conduct research at scale, it is able to engage in bold and long-term exploratory projects that are designed to influence and empower medical science globally. Institute research findings, generated through its own research programmes and through its leading role in international consortia, are being used to develop new diagnostics and treatments for human disease. To celebrate its 25th year in 2018, the Institute is sequencing 25 new genomes of species in the UK. Find out more at www.sanger.ac.uk or follow @sangerinstitute
Wellcome exists to improve health for everyone by helping great ideas to thrive. We’re a global charitable foundation, both politically and financially independent. We support scientists and researchers, take on big problems, fuel imaginations and spark debate. wellcome.org
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