Wellcome Sanger Institute

Anopheles Reference Genomes Project

The project provides extremely high-quality reference genomes for any Anopheles malaria vector species required by the research community to better understand the interactions, prevalence and control of these insects. We now have additional funding to DNA sequence and assemble additional malaria vector reference genomes and encourage submissions from researchers with access to live specimens.


The Anopheles Reference Genomes project builds highly complete and contiguous long-read assemblies for Anopheles species to remedy fundamental gaps in vector control, and identify a scalable blueprint for future assembly efforts.

These data (including raw data and assemblies) are released for reuse for any purpose upon deposition in ENA, and we encourage reuse.

We seek to rapidly publish all submitted assemblies as Wellcome Open Research Genome Notes, which can be cited.


Using a combination of PacBio HiFi, Hi-C, and linked read data as well as full length IsoSeq RNAseq where possible, we are able to create some of the highest quality reference genomes available for any insect using wild-caught specimens and/or their broods.

Our techniques allow us to achieve this with just one or two individual mosquitoes.

Call for 10 additional Anopheles species

Thanks to the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, we have funding to generate reference genomes for any Anopheles vector species.

Please get in touch if you have access to live malaria vector specimens from anywhere in the world requiring a reference genome. You can do this by filling in this form: tinyurl.com/AnophelesRefGenomes

Thank you!

Anopheles Reference Genomes released so far

We now have released reference genomes for:

  • An. aquasalis
  • An. bellator
  • An. coustani
  • An. cruzii
  • An. darlingi
  • An. funestus
  • An. gambiae
  • An. maculipalpis
  • An. marshallii
  • An. moucheti
  • An. nili
  • An. ziemanni. 

These genomes and their accompanying raw data can be accessed here: https://www.ebi.ac.uk/ena/browser/view/PRJEB51690

These are undergoing annotation by NCBI RefSeq and Ensembl and are becoming available via VectorBase (a VEuPathDB project).

Sanger people

Photo of Dr Mara Lawniczak

Dr Mara Lawniczak

Senior Group Leader

Photo of Dr Alex Makunin

Dr Alex Makunin

Computational Staff Scientist

External partners and funders

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