Sanger Institute - Publications 1993

Number of papers published in 1993: 3

  • Yeast origin recognition complex is involved in DNA replication and transcriptional silencing.

    Micklem G, Rowley A, Harwood J, Nasmyth K and Diffley JF

    MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge, UK.

    The HMR E silencer represses transcription of silent mating-type genes in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and contains three redundant regulatory elements A, E and B (ref. 1). The A element contains the 11 base pair consensus sequence that is essential for the firing of DNA replication origins. A multisubunit protein called the origin recognition complex (ORC) binds specifically to this consensus sequence within yeast origins in vitro and in vivo. We isolated mutants in A element-mediated silencing and report here that one of the genes we identified, RRR1, encodes ORC2, the 72K subunit of ORC. RRR1/ORC2 is an essential gene, but the rrr1-316 allele, which is viable, is defective in the replication of nuclear DNA and the maintenance of the 2-microns episomal DNA. This is, to our knowledge, the first genetic evidence that ORC is involved in DNA replication and silencing.

    Nature 1993;366;6450;87-9

  • Regulation of linkages between the erythrocyte membrane and its skeleton by 2,3-diphosphoglycerate.

    Moriyama R, Lombardo CR, Workman RF and Low PS

    Department of Chemistry, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907-1393.

    In addition to reducing hemoglobin-O2 affinity, 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (DPG) is known to modulate the mechanical properties of the erythrocyte membrane. By fluorescence spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry, we demonstrate that DPG binds the cytoplasmic domain of erythrocyte membrane band 3 in two stages characterized by apparent KD values of approximately approximately 2 and 12 mM. DPG was also shown to perturb the stability of ankyrin, protein 4.1, and protein 4.2 in situ and to directly bind to protein 4.1. In studies of membrane-skeleton interactions, DPG was observed to inhibit the fast and slow phases of ankyrin binding to band 3 and to reduce both the number of ankyrin sites and affinity of ankyrin for each class of site. The inhibition was biphasic, similar to the band 3-DPG binding isotherm; however, at physiological DPG concentrations a reduction in only 15% of the ankyrin sites was observed. In contrast, inhibition of protein 4.1 binding to the membrane reached 65% at physiological DPG concentrations (approximately approximately 5.9 mM); at more elevated concentrations, blockade was nearly quantitative, affecting glycophorin and band 3 sites alike. Taken together with previous observations, these data suggest that DPG's effect on O2 delivery may extend beyond its well recognized impact on hemoglobin-O2 affinity.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM24417

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1993;268;15;10990-6

  • The Caenorhabditis elegans genome sequencing project: first steps in automation.

    Watson A, Smaldon N, Lucke R and Hawkins T

    Sanger Centre, Hinxton Park, Hinxton, Cambridge, UK.

    Novel biochemical processes using magnetic particles have been automated to provide a robotic system to perform processes for large-scale shotgun sequencing.

    Nature 1993;362;6420;569-70