EMu: Expectation-Maximisation inference of mutational signatures

EMu is software for inferring the mutational signatures present in a number of cancer mutation sets.

Several independent mutational processes jointly produce the observed spectrum of mutations in a number of comparable tumours. EMu tries to find the number of processes present in a data set and their individual mutational signatures. These signatures contain information about the biological, physical or chemical processes active in cancer.

EMu can also be used to localise regions in a cancer genome where a given set of mutational processes is active. EMu exploits the fact that the outcome of a mutational process not only depends on its signature, but also on the sequence on which it acts.

Download and Installation

The latest version of the software can be found at:



If you have any questions or feedback, please contact Andrej Fischer or Ville Mustonen.


Sanger Contributors
External Contributors


  • EMu: probabilistic inference of mutational processes and their localization in the cancer genome.

    Fischer A, Illingworth CJ, Campbell PJ and Mustonen V

    Genome biology 2013;14;4;R39

Tool Type