Professor Mark Blaxter | Senior Group Leader

Blaxter, Mark

I am Programme Lead for the Sanger Institute's new Tree of Life Programme. ToL has as an overarching goal the sequencing to high quality of all species on Earth. We will do this in collaboration with others worldwide, under the umbrella of the Earth BioGenome Project. Within In ToL we will be generating and analysing reference genomes for the diverse eukaryotic species, in the British Isles with collaborators in the Darwin UK Tree of Life Project. I am excited to be at the centre of this visionary network of genome scientists, biologists, conservationists and bioinformaticians, who are all dedicated to unlocking the secrets of life on earth.

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Our planet is experiencing the sixth great extinction, where acceleration of biodiversity loss threatens the health of the ecosystems on which the health of human society depends. In the Tree of Life Programme, we are using genomics to understand the deep roots of biodiversity, delve into the unique biology of threatened organisms, and provide tools for conservation and mitigation of climate change and other threats.

The diversity of life is encoded in genomes. Genomes are much more than strings of chemical letters: they store the instructions for building each organism, and the history of the evolution of the species through deep time. We are lucky to be at a point in the development of genomic and informatic technologies where it is possible to build high-quality, essentially complete chromosomal reference genomes for thousands of species. Where previously a "reference genome" approach was only applied to humans and important model species, we can now extend this approach to all of life. We are therefore planning to sequence many thousands of genomes per year, from animals, plants, fungi and single-celled organisms. These will be released to the global community – to transform the way all of biological science is practiced in the future.

Darwin Tree of Life logo

We are starting with one of the best known biotas in the world: the animals, plants, fungi and protists that live in the British Isles. This archipelago in the Atlantic Ocean off the West coast of Europe is a perfect laboratory for biodiversity science. It has been studied for centuries, and the detailed knowledge of what is where within these islands is unrivalled globally. There exists an engaged community of biodiversity scientists and anmateur and professional naturalists who are poised to use the genomic information to better understand how the ecosystems of the British Isles were constructed after the last ice age, how they are responding to climate change, and how genomic diversity maps onto the phenotypic diversity evident all around.

Working with partners across the British Isles (the Natural History Museum, the Royal Botanic Gardens Kew, the Royal Botanic Gardens Edinburgh, the Marine Biological Association, the Wytham Woods long term ecology research station of the University of Oxford, the Earlham Institute, the European Bioinformatics Institute, the University of Cambridge and the University of Edinburgh) we plan to sequence all 60,000 named eukaryotic species in the next 10-12 years. This involves huge efforts in collection and identification, massive sequencing and assembly programme, and dedicated large-scale portals to release the data to the public. At ToL in Sanger we are responsible for developing the engines needed to generate very high quality genome assmblies, including developing new methods and computer tools. We will be working closely with other large scale genome sequencing projects worldwide, inlcuding the Earth BioGenome Project, the Vertebrate Genomes Project and others, to deliver a global genomic resource that benefits all.

We will use these genomes to build the tree of life, revealing how organisms are related, and identifying where, when and how speciation happens. We will explore the genes present in the thousands of genomes: how do these evolve through time? We will explore the hidden world of cryptic species, where organisms that look the same to us are actually independent evolutionary units, and use sequencing as an assay to track species diversity in space and time. We will explore the genomics of symbiosis, where distinct organisms live together. Many symbiotic relationships can be classed as parasitic (over 30% of all eukaryotes can be classed as parasites) but some are mutualist: how do these modes of life arise, and what effect does lifestyle have on the pattern of evolution in the genomes of host and symbiont? Genomes are not just random collections of genes, but are organised into chromosomes, and these chromosomes have long-range structures. How do long-range chromosomal structures evolve, and what keeps them (largely) stable?

My background is in the genomics of parasitic nematodes, but I have worked on a wide range of species from viruses to mammals, and on topics ranging from the dynamics of infection in marine algae to the origins of handedness in snails to the evolution of male plumage diversity in birds. Throughout my research we have championed open access, releasing datasets well in advance of publication to encourage reuse. We develop tools for genome analysis, including raw and assembly data QC, data visualisation and interactive analysis.

Publications

  • Chromosome-Wide Evolution and Sex Determination in the Three-Sexed Nematode Auanema rhodensis.

    Tandonnet S, Koutsovoulos GD, Adams S, Cloarec D, Parihar M et al.

    G3 (Bethesda, Md.) 2019;9;4;1211-1230

  • Sex- and Gamete-Specific Patterns of X Chromosome Segregation in a Trioecious Nematode.

    Tandonnet S, Farrell MC, Koutsovoulos GD, Blaxter ML, Parihar M et al.

    Current biology : CB 2018;28;1;93-99.e3

  • Formin Is Associated with Left-Right Asymmetry in the Pond Snail and the Frog.

    Davison A, McDowell GS, Holden JM, Johnson HF, Koutsovoulos GD et al.

    Current biology : CB 2016;26;5;654-60

  • Comparative genomics of 10 new Caenorhabditis species.

    Stevens L, Félix MA, Beltran T, Braendle C, Caurcel C et al.

    Evolution letters 2019;3;2;217-236

  • Males as somatic investment in a parthenogenetic nematode.

    Grosmaire M, Launay C, Siegwald M, Brugière T, Estrada-Virrueta L et al.

    Science (New York, N.Y.) 2019;363;6432;1210-1213

  • Characterisation of the British honey bee metagenome.

    Regan T, Barnett MW, Laetsch DR, Bush SJ, Wragg D et al.

    Nature communications 2018;9;1;4995

  • Comparative genomics of the tardigrades Hypsibius dujardini and Ramazzottius varieornatus.

    Yoshida Y, Koutsovoulos G, Laetsch DR, Stevens L, Kumar S et al.

    PLoS biology 2017;15;7;e2002266

  • No evidence for extensive horizontal gene transfer in the genome of the tardigrade Hypsibius dujardini.

    Koutsovoulos G, Kumar S, Laetsch DR, Stevens L, Daub J et al.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2016;113;18;5053-8

  • A supergene determines highly divergent male reproductive morphs in the ruff.

    Küpper C, Stocks M, Risse JE, Dos Remedios N, Farrell LL et al.

    Nature genetics 2016;48;1;79-83

  • A molecular evolutionary framework for the phylum Nematoda.

    Blaxter ML, De Ley P, Garey JR, Liu LX, Scheldeman P et al.

    Nature 1998;392;6671;71-5

  • Genomic architecture and introgression shape a butterfly radiation.

    Edelman NB, Frandsen PB, Miyagi M, Clavijo B, Davey J et al.

    Science (New York, N.Y.) 2019;366;6465;594-599

  • Infection by the castrating parasitic nematode Sphaerularia bombi changes gene expression in Bombus terrestris bumblebee queens.

    Colgan TJ, Carolan JC, Sumner S, Blaxter ML and Brown MJF

    Insect molecular biology 2019

  • Chromosome-Wide Evolution and Sex Determination in the Three-Sexed Nematode Auanema rhodensis.

    Tandonnet S, Koutsovoulos GD, Adams S, Cloarec D, Parihar M et al.

    G3 (Bethesda, Md.) 2019;9;4;1211-1230

  • Comparative genomics of 10 new Caenorhabditis species.

    Stevens L, Félix MA, Beltran T, Braendle C, Caurcel C et al.

    Evolution letters 2019;3;2;217-236

  • Males as somatic investment in a parthenogenetic nematode.

    Grosmaire M, Launay C, Siegwald M, Brugière T, Estrada-Virrueta L et al.

    Science (New York, N.Y.) 2019;363;6432;1210-1213

  • Genome-wide methylation is modified by caloric restriction in Daphnia magna.

    Hearn J, Pearson M, Blaxter M, Wilson PJ and Little TJ

    BMC genomics 2019;20;1;197

  • Dissection of Ramularia Leaf Spot Disease by Integrated Analysis of Barley and Ramularia collo-cygni Transcriptome Responses.

    Sjokvist E, Lemcke R, Kamble M, Turner F, Blaxter M et al.

    Molecular plant-microbe interactions : MPMI 2019;32;2;176-193

  • Comparative genomics of the major parasitic worms.

    International Helminth Genomes Consortium

    Nature genetics 2019;51;1;163-174

  • High genetic diversity in the Dirofilaria repens species complex revealed by mitochondrial genomes of feline microfilaria samples from Narathiwat, Thailand.

    Yilmaz E, Wongkamchai S, Ramünke S, Koutsovoulos GD, Blaxter ML et al.

    Transboundary and emerging diseases 2019;66;1;389-399

  • Characterisation of the British honey bee metagenome.

    Regan T, Barnett MW, Laetsch DR, Bush SJ, Wragg D et al.

    Nature communications 2018;9;1;4995

  • Daphnia magna microRNAs respond to nutritional stress and ageing but are not transgenerational.

    Hearn J, Chow FW, Barton H, Tung M, Wilson PJ et al.

    Molecular ecology 2018;27;6;1402-1412

  • Sex- and Gamete-Specific Patterns of X Chromosome Segregation in a Trioecious Nematode.

    Tandonnet S, Farrell MC, Koutsovoulos GD, Blaxter ML, Parihar M et al.

    Current biology : CB 2018;28;1;93-99.e3

  • KinFin: Software for Taxon-Aware Analysis of Clustered Protein Sequences.

    Laetsch DR and Blaxter ML

    G3 (Bethesda, Md.) 2017;7;10;3349-3357

  • Toward Universal Forward Genetics: Using a Draft Genome Sequence of the Nematode Oscheius tipulae To Identify Mutations Affecting Vulva Development.

    Besnard F, Koutsovoulos G, Dieudonné S, Blaxter M and Félix MA

    Genetics 2017;206;4;1747-1761

  • Comparative genomics of the tardigrades Hypsibius dujardini and Ramazzottius varieornatus.

    Yoshida Y, Koutsovoulos G, Laetsch DR, Stevens L, Kumar S et al.

    PLoS biology 2017;15;7;e2002266

  • Annotated mitochondrial genome with Nanopore R9 signal for Nippostrongylus brasiliensis.

    Chandler J, Camberis M, Bouchery T, Blaxter M, Le Gros G and Eccles DA

    F1000Research 2017;6;56

  • GenomeHubs: simple containerized setup of a custom Ensembl database and web server for any species.

    Challis RJ, Kumar S, Stevens L and Blaxter M

    Database : the journal of biological databases and curation 2017;2017

  • Erratum: How many biological replicates are needed in an RNA-seq experiment and which differential expression tool should you use?

    Schurch NJ, Schofield P, Gierliński M, Cole C, Sherstnev A et al.

    RNA (New York, N.Y.) 2016;22;10;1641

  • Imagining Sisyphus happy: DNA barcoding and the unnamed majority.

    Blaxter M

    Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences 2016;371;1702

  • A molecular palaeobiological exploration of arthropod terrestrialization.

    Lozano-Fernandez J, Carton R, Tanner AR, Puttick MN, Blaxter M et al.

    Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences 2016;371;1699

  • The genome of the yellow potato cyst nematode, Globodera rostochiensis, reveals insights into the basis of parasitism and virulence.

    Eves-van den Akker S, Laetsch DR, Thorpe P, Lilley CJ, Danchin EG et al.

    Genome biology 2016;17;1;124

  • Characterization of the mantle transcriptome in bivalves: Pecten maximus, Mytilus edulis and Crassostrea gigas.

    Yarra T, Gharbi K, Blaxter M, Peck LS and Clark MS

    Marine genomics 2016;27;9-15

  • Reminder to deposit DNA sequences.

    Blaxter M, Danchin A, Savakis B, Fukami-Kobayashi K, Kurokawa K et al.

    Science (New York, N.Y.) 2016;352;6287;780

  • No evidence for extensive horizontal gene transfer in the genome of the tardigrade Hypsibius dujardini.

    Koutsovoulos G, Kumar S, Laetsch DR, Stevens L, Daub J et al.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2016;113;18;5053-8

  • Formin Is Associated with Left-Right Asymmetry in the Pond Snail and the Frog.

    Davison A, McDowell GS, Holden JM, Johnson HF, Koutsovoulos GD et al.

    Current biology : CB 2016;26;5;654-60

  • A supergene determines highly divergent male reproductive morphs in the ruff.

    Küpper C, Stocks M, Risse JE, Dos Remedios N, Farrell LL et al.

    Nature genetics 2016;48;1;79-83

  • Oviposition but Not Sex Allocation Is Associated with Transcriptomic Changes in Females of the Parasitoid Wasp Nasonia vitripennis.

    Cook N, Trivedi U, Pannebakker BA, Blaxter M, Ritchie MG et al.

    G3 (Bethesda, Md.) 2015;5;12;2885-92

  • Erratum: Exosomes secreted by nematode parasites transfer small RNAs to mammalian cells and modulate innate immunity.

    Buck AH, Coakley G, Simbari F, McSorley HJ, Quintana JF et al.

    Nature communications 2015;6;8772

  • Ancient and novel small RNA pathways compensate for the loss of piRNAs in multiple independent nematode lineages.

    Sarkies P, Selkirk ME, Jones JT, Blok V, Boothby T et al.

    PLoS biology 2015;13;2;e1002061

  • poRe: an R package for the visualization and analysis of nanopore sequencing data.

    Watson M, Thomson M, Risse J, Talbot R, Santoyo-Lopez J et al.

    Bioinformatics (Oxford, England) 2015;31;1;114-5

  • Palaeosymbiosis revealed by genomic fossils of Wolbachia in a strongyloidean nematode.

    Koutsovoulos G, Makepeace B, Tanya VN and Blaxter M

    PLoS genetics 2014;10;6;e1004397

  • Development: the maternal-zygotic transition revisited.

    Blaxter M

    Current biology : CB 2014;24;2;R72-5

  • The complex hybrid origins of the root knot nematodes revealed through comparative genomics.

    Lunt DH, Kumar S, Koutsovoulos G and Blaxter ML

    PeerJ 2014;2;e356

  • Badger--an accessible genome exploration environment.

    Elsworth B, Jones M and Blaxter M

    Bioinformatics (Oxford, England) 2013;29;21;2788-9

  • Genome-wide patterns of divergence and gene flow across a butterfly radiation.

    Nadeau NJ, Martin SH, Kozak KM, Salazar C, Dasmahapatra KK et al.

    Molecular ecology 2013;22;3;814-26

  • Drosophila suzukii.

    Rota-Stabelli O, Blaxter M and Anfora G

    Current biology : CB 2013;23;1;R8-9

  • Blobology: exploring raw genome data for contaminants, symbionts and parasites using taxon-annotated GC-coverage plots.

    Kumar S, Jones M, Koutsovoulos G, Clarke M and Blaxter M

    Frontiers in genetics 2013;4;237

  • Fine mapping of the pond snail left-right asymmetry (chirality) locus using RAD-Seq and fibre-FISH.

    Liu MM, Davey JW, Banerjee R, Han J, Yang F et al.

    PloS one 2013;8;8;e71067

  • The worm in the world and the world in the worm.

    Blaxter M and Denver DR

    BMC biology 2012;10;57

  • Characterisation of QTL-linked and genome-wide restriction site-associated DNA (RAD) markers in farmed Atlantic salmon.

    Houston RD, Davey JW, Bishop SC, Lowe NR, Mota-Velasco JC et al.

    BMC genomics 2012;13;244

  • Quantitative genome re-sequencing defines multiple mutations conferring chloroquine resistance in rodent malaria.

    Kinga Modrzynska K, Creasey A, Loewe L, Cezard T, Trindade Borges S et al.

    BMC genomics 2012;13;106

  • Genomics and transcriptomics across the diversity of the Nematoda.

    Blaxter M, Kumar S, Kaur G, Koutsovoulos G and Elsworth B

    Parasite immunology 2012;34;2-3;108-20

  • 959 Nematode Genomes: a semantic wiki for coordinating sequencing projects.

    Kumar S, Schiffer PH and Blaxter M

    Nucleic acids research 2012;40;Database issue;D1295-300

  • Polyphenism in social insects: insights from a transcriptome-wide analysis of gene expression in the life stages of the key pollinator, Bombus terrestris.

    Colgan TJ, Carolan JC, Bridgett SJ, Sumner S, Blaxter ML and Brown MJ

    BMC genomics 2011;12;623

  • Simultaneous genome sequencing of symbionts and their hosts.

    Kumar S and Blaxter ML

    Symbiosis (Philadelphia, Pa.) 2011;55;3;119-126

  • NEMBASE4: the nematode transcriptome resource.

    Elsworth B, Wasmuth J and Blaxter M

    International journal for parasitology 2011;41;8;881-94

  • Developing EPIC markers for chalcidoid Hymenoptera from EST and genomic data.

    Lohse K, Sharanowski B, Blaxter M, Nicholls JA and Stone GN

    Molecular ecology resources 2011;11;3;521-9

  • Velvet worms.

    Blaxter M and Sunnucks P

    Current biology : CB 2011;21;7;R238-40

  • Deep resequencing of serial sputum isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis during therapeutic failure due to poor compliance reveals stepwise mutation of key resistance genes on an otherwise stable genetic background.

    Saunders NJ, Trivedi UH, Thomson ML, Doig C, Laurenson IF and Blaxter ML

    The Journal of infection 2011;62;3;212-7

  • Genetics. Revealing the dark matter of the genome.

    Blaxter M

    Science (New York, N.Y.) 2010;330;6012;1758-9

  • RADSeq: next-generation population genetics.

    Davey JW, Davey JL, Blaxter ML and Blaxter MW

    Briefings in functional genomics 2010;9;5-6;416-23

  • Experimental evolution, genetic analysis and genome re-sequencing reveal the mutation conferring artemisinin resistance in an isogenic lineage of malaria parasites.

    Hunt P, Martinelli A, Modrzynska K, Borges S, Creasey A et al.

    BMC genomics 2010;11;499

  • Phylogeny and DNA barcoding of inquiline oak gallwasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) of the Western Palaearctic.

    Acs Z, Challis RJ, Bihari P, Blaxter M, Hayward A et al.

    Molecular phylogenetics and evolution 2010;55;1;210-25

  • Ultrasequencing of the meiofaunal biosphere: practice, pitfalls and promises.

    Creer S, Fonseca VG, Porazinska DL, Giblin-Davis RM, Sung W et al.

    Molecular ecology 2010;19 Suppl 1;4-20

  • The nematode story: Hox gene loss and rapid evolution.

    Aboobaker A and Blaxter M

    Advances in experimental medicine and biology 2010;689;101-10

  • A cryptoendolithic community in volcanic glass.

    Herrera A, Cockell CS, Self S, Blaxter M, Reitner J et al.

    Astrobiology 2009;9;4;369-81

  • A P2X receptor from the tardigrade species Hypsibius dujardini with fast kinetics and sensitivity to zinc and copper.

    Bavan S, Straub VA, Blaxter ML and Ennion SJ

    BMC evolutionary biology 2009;9;17

  • EST processing: from trace to sequence.

    Schmid R and Blaxter M

    Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) 2009;533;189-220

  • Expressed sequence tags: an overview.

    Parkinson J and Blaxter M

    Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) 2009;533;1-12

  • Obtaining accurate translations from expressed sequence tags.

    Wasmuth J and Blaxter M

    Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) 2009;533;221-39

  • Comparative transcriptomic responses to chronic cadmium, fluoranthene, and atrazine exposure in Lumbricus rubellus.

    Svendsen C, Owen J, Kille P, Wren J, Jonker MJ et al.

    Environmental science & technology 2008;42;11;4208-14

  • annot8r: GO, EC and KEGG annotation of EST datasets.

    Schmid R and Blaxter ML

    BMC bioinformatics 2008;9;180

  • Association of the matrix attachment region recognition signature with coding regions in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Anthony A and Blaxter M

    BMC genomics 2007;8;418

  • Symbiont genes in host genomes: fragments with a future?

    Blaxter M

    Cell host & microbe 2007;2;4;211-3

  • Draft genome of the filarial nematode parasite Brugia malayi.

    Ghedin E, Wang S, Spiro D, Caler E, Zhao Q et al.

    Science (New York, N.Y.) 2007;317;5845;1756-60

  • The effect of model choice on phylogenetic inference using mitochondrial sequence data: lessons from the scorpions.

    Jones M, Gantenbein B, Fet V and Blaxter M

    Molecular phylogenetics and evolution 2007;43;2;583-95

  • An improved molecular phylogeny of the Nematoda with special emphasis on marine taxa.

    Meldal BH, Debenham NJ, De Ley P, De Ley IT, Vanfleteren JR et al.

    Molecular phylogenetics and evolution 2007;42;3;622-36

  • TaxMan: a taxonomic database manager.

    Jones M and Blaxter M

    BMC bioinformatics 2006;7;536

  • The evolution of biased codon and amino acid usage in nematode genomes.

    Cutter AD, Wasmuth JD and Blaxter ML

    Molecular biology and evolution 2006;23;12;2303-15

  • Differential display of genes expressed in the filarial nematode Litomosoides sigmodontis reveals a putative phosphate permease up-regulated after depletion of Wolbachia endobacteria.

    Heider U, Blaxter M, Hoerauf A and Pfarr KM

    International journal of medical microbiology : IJMM 2006;296;4-5;287-99

  • Wolbachia genomes: revealing the biology of parasitism and mutualism.

    Fenn K and Blaxter M

    Trends in parasitology 2006;22;2;60-5

  • Characterization of a novel filarial serine protease inhibitor, Ov-SPI-1, from Onchocerca volvulus, with potential multifunctional roles during development of the parasite.

    Ford L, Guiliano DB, Oksov Y, Debnath AK, Liu J et al.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2005;280;49;40845-56

  • A white paper on nematode comparative genomics.

    Bird DM, Blaxter ML, McCarter JP, Mitreva M, Sternberg PW and Thomas WK

    Journal of nematology 2005;37;4;408-16

  • Defining operational taxonomic units using DNA barcode data.

    Blaxter M, Mann J, Chapman T, Thomas F, Whitton C et al.

    Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences 2005;360;1462;1935-43

  • Comparative genomics of nematodes.

    Mitreva M, Blaxter ML, Bird DM and McCarter JP

    Trends in genetics : TIG 2005;21;10;573-81

  • Genomic tools and cDNA derived markers for butterflies.

    Papanicolaou A, Joron M, McMillan WO, Blaxter ML and Jiggins CD

    Molecular ecology 2005;14;9;2883-97

  • An expressed sequence tag survey of gene expression in the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis, an intermediate vector of trematodes [corrected].

    Davison A and Blaxter ML

    Parasitology 2005;130;Pt 5;539-52

  • Ancient origin of glycosyl hydrolase family 9 cellulase genes.

    Davison A and Blaxter M

    Molecular biology and evolution 2005;22;5;1273-84

  • Characterisation of the two most abundant genes in the Haemonchus contortus expressed sequence tag dataset.

    Geldhof P, Whitton C, Gregory WF, Blaxter M and Knox DP

    International journal for parasitology 2005;35;5;513-22

  • Evolutionary biology: animal roots and shoots.

    Jones M and Blaxter M

    Nature 2005;434;7037;1076-7

  • Molecular helminthology in the Rockies. Keystone Symposium on Molecular Helminthology, Copper Mountain, Colorado, USA, 9-13 April 2005.

    Blaxter M

    Genome biology 2005;6;7;329

  • A transcriptomic analysis of the phylum Nematoda.

    Parkinson J, Mitreva M, Whitton C, Thomson M, Daub J et al.

    Nature genetics 2004;36;12;1259-67

  • prot4EST: translating expressed sequence tags from neglected genomes.

    Wasmuth JD and Blaxter ML

    BMC bioinformatics 2004;5;187

  • Quantification of Wolbachia bacteria in Brugia malayi through the nematode lifecycle.

    Fenn K and Blaxter M

    Molecular and biochemical parasitology 2004;137;2;361-4

  • A gene family of cathepsin L-like proteases of filarial nematodes are associated with larval molting and cuticle and eggshell remodeling.

    Guiliano DB, Hong X, McKerrow JH, Blaxter ML, Oksov Y et al.

    Molecular and biochemical parasitology 2004;136;2;227-42

  • PartiGene--constructing partial genomes.

    Parkinson J, Anthony A, Wasmuth J, Schmid R, Hedley A and Blaxter M

    Bioinformatics (Oxford, England) 2004;20;9;1398-404

  • DNA taxonomy of a neglected animal phylum: an unexpected diversity of tardigrades.

    Blaxter M, Elsworth B and Daub J

    Proceedings. Biological sciences 2004;271 Suppl 4;S189-92

  • Construction of bacterial artificial chromosome libraries from the parasitic nematode Brugia malayi and physical mapping of the genome of its Wolbachia endosymbiont.

    Foster JM, Kumar S, Ganatra MB, Kamal IH, Ware J et al.

    International journal for parasitology 2004;34;6;733-46

  • The promise of a DNA taxonomy.

    Blaxter ML

    Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences 2004;359;1444;669-79

  • Are filarial nematode Wolbachia obligate mutualist symbionts?

    Fenn K and Blaxter M

    Trends in ecology & evolution 2004;19;4;163-6

  • Functional genomics for parasitic nematodes and platyhelminths.

    Aboobaker AA and Blaxter ML

    Trends in parasitology 2004;20;4;178-84

  • Expressed sequence tags: analysis and annotation.

    Parkinson J and Blaxter M

    Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) 2004;270;93-126

  • Expressed sequence tags: medium-throughput protocols.

    Whitton C, Daub J, Thompson M and Blaxter M

    Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) 2004;270;75-92

  • Most of the response elicited against Wolbachia surface protein in filarial nematode infection is due to the infective larval stage.

    Lamb TJ, Le Goff L, Kurniawan A, Guiliano DB, Fenn K et al.

    The Journal of infectious diseases 2004;189;1;120-7

  • NEMBASE: a resource for parasitic nematode ESTs.

    Parkinson J, Whitton C, Schmid R, Thomson M and Blaxter M

    Nucleic acids research 2004;32;Database issue;D427-30

  • Hox gene evolution in nematodes: novelty conserved.

    Aboobaker A and Blaxter M

    Current opinion in genetics & development 2003;13;6;593-8

  • Comparative genomics: two worms are better than one.

    Blaxter M

    Nature 2003;426;6965;395-6

  • 400000 nematode ESTs on the Net.

    Parkinson J, Mitreva M, Hall N, Blaxter M and McCarter JP

    Trends in parasitology 2003;19;7;283-6

  • Use of RNA interference to investigate gene function in the human filarial nematode parasite Brugia malayi.

    Aboobaker AA and Blaxter ML

    Molecular and biochemical parasitology 2003;129;1;41-51

  • Expressed sequence tag survey of gene expression in the scab mite Psoroptes ovis--allergens, proteases and free-radical scavengers.

    Kenyon F, Welsh M, Parkinson J, Whitton C, Blaxter ML and Knox DP

    Parasitology 2003;126;Pt 5;451-60

  • Comparison of biological, molecular, and morphological methods of species identification in a set of cultured panagrolaimus isolates.

    Eyualem A and Blaxter M

    Journal of nematology 2003;35;1;119-28

  • SimiTri--visualizing similarity relationships for groups of sequences.

    Parkinson J and Blaxter M

    Bioinformatics (Oxford, England) 2003;19;3;390-5

  • Molecular systematics: Counting angels with DNA.

    Blaxter M

    Nature 2003;421;6919;122-4

  • Hox Gene Loss during Dynamic Evolution of the Nematode Cluster.

    Aboobaker AA and Blaxter ML

    Current biology : CB 2003;13;1;37-40

  • Nematoda: genes, genomes and the evolution of parasitism.

    Blaxter ML

    Advances in parasitology 2003;54;101-95

  • Abundant larval transcript-1 and -2 genes from Brugia malayi: diversity of genomic environments but conservation of 5' promoter sequences functional in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Gomez-Escobar N, Gregory WF, Britton C, Murray L, Corton C et al.

    Molecular and biochemical parasitology 2002;125;1-2;59-71

  • Molecular phylogenetic analysis of the genus Strongyloides and related nematodes.

    Dorris M, Viney ME and Blaxter ML

    International journal for parasitology 2002;32;12;1507-17

  • Making sense of EST sequences by CLOBBing them.

    Parkinson J, Guiliano DB and Blaxter M

    BMC bioinformatics 2002;3;31

  • Tardigrades.

    Goldstein B and Blaxter M

    Current biology : CB 2002;12;14;R475

  • IL-4 dependent alternatively-activated macrophages have a distinctive in vivo gene expression phenotype.

    Loke P, Nair MG, Parkinson J, Guiliano D, Blaxter M and Allen JE

    BMC immunology 2002;3;7

  • Molecular barcodes for soil nematode identification.

    Floyd R, Abebe E, Papert A and Blaxter M

    Molecular ecology 2002;11;4;839-50

  • Opinion piece. Genome sequencing: time to widen our horizons.

    Blaxter M

    Briefings in functional genomics & proteomics 2002;1;1;7-9

  • Sequencing and analysis of a 63 kb bacterial artificial chromosome insert from the Wolbachia endosymbiont of the human filarial parasite Brugia malayi.

    Ware J, Moran L, Foster J, Posfai J, Vincze T et al.

    International journal for parasitology 2002;32;2;159-66

  • Caenorhabditis elegans has a circadian clock.

    Kippert F, Saunders DS and Blaxter ML

    Current biology : CB 2002;12;2;R47-9

  • The Brugia malayi genome project: expressed sequence tags and gene discovery.

    Blaxter M, Daub J, Guiliano D, Parkinson J, Whitton C and Filarial Genome Project

    Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 2002;96;1;7-17

  • Evolutionary biology. Sum of the arthropod parts.

    Blaxter M

    Nature 2001;413;6852;121-2

  • 200000 nematode expressed sequence tags on the Net.

    Parkinson J, Whitton C, Guiliano D, Daub J and Blaxter M

    Trends in parasitology 2001;17;8;394-396

  • Immunological genomics of Brugia malayi: filarial genes implicated in immune evasion and protective immunity.

    Maizels RM, Blaxter ML and Scott AL

    Parasite immunology 2001;23;7;327-44

  • Hybridization to high-density filter arrays of a Brugia malayi BAC library with biotinylated oligonucleotides and PCR products.

    Foster JM, Kamal IH, Daub J, Swan MC, Ingram JR et al.

    BioTechniques 2001;30;6;1216-8, 1220, 1222 passim

  • The small subunit ribosomal RNA sequence of Strongyloides stercoralis.

    Dorris M and Blaxter M

    International journal for parasitology 2000;30;8;939-41

  • Parasitic helminths from genomes to vaccines II: Edinburgh, July 1999.

    Blaxter ML, Maizels RM and Kennedy MW

    Parasite immunology 2000;22;7;371-2

  • The filarial genome project: analysis of the nuclear, mitochondrial and endosymbiont genomes of Brugia malayi.

    Williams SA, Lizotte-Waniewski MR, Foster J, Guiliano D, Daub J et al.

    International journal for parasitology 2000;30;4;411-9

  • Genes and genomes of Necator americanus and related hookworms.

    Blaxter M

    International journal for parasitology 2000;30;4;347-55

  • Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Wixon J, Blaxter M, Hope I, Barstead R and Kim S

    Yeast (Chichester, England) 2000;17;1;37-42

  • The new subfamily of cathepsin-Z-like protease genes includes Tc-cpz-1, a cysteine protease gene expressed in Toxocara canis adults and infective stage larvae.

    Falcone FH, Tetteh KK, Hunt P, Blaxter ML, Loukas A and Maizels RM

    Experimental parasitology 2000;94;3;201-7

  • A hemoglobin with an optical function.

    Burr AH, Hunt P, Wagar DR, Dewilde S, Blaxter ML et al.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2000;275;7;4810-5

  • A survey of genes expressed in adults of the human hookworm, Necator americanus.

    Daub J, Loukas A, Pritchard DI and Blaxter M

    Parasitology 2000;120 ( Pt 2);171-84

  • Medical significance of Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Aboobaker AA and Blaxter ML

    Annals of medicine 2000;32;1;23-30

  • Molecular helminthology moves forward.

    Blaxter M, Maizels R and Kennedy M

    Parasitology today (Personal ed.) 2000;16;1;5-6

  • Reports from the cutting edge of parasitic genome analysis.

    Blaxter M and Ivens A

    Parasitology today (Personal ed.) 1999;15;11;430-1

  • Chemiluminescent detection of sequential DNA hybridizations to high-density, filter-arrayed cDNA libraries: a subtraction method for novel gene discovery.

    Guiliano D, Ganatra M, Ware J, Parrot J, Daub J et al.

    BioTechniques 1999;27;1;146-52

  • Molecular analysis of nematode diversity and the evolution of parasitism.

    Dorris M, De Ley P and Blaxter ML

    Parasitology today (Personal ed.) 1999;15;5;188-93

  • Genomics and the biology of parasites.

    Johnston DA, Blaxter ML, Degrave WM, Foster J, Ivens AC and Melville SE

    BioEssays : news and reviews in molecular, cellular and developmental biology 1999;21;2;131-47

  • The Wolbachia Genome Consortium.

    Slatko BE, O'Neill SL, Scott AL, Werren JL and Blaxter ML

    Microbial & comparative genomics 1999;4;3;161-5

Blaxter, Mark
Mark's Timeline
2019

Programme Lead for the Tree of Life Programme, Wellcome Sanger Institute

2004

Professor of Evolutionary Genomics, University of Edinburgh

2001

Reader, University of Edinburgh

1996

Lecturer, University of Edinburgh

1995

Wellcome Trust Research Fellow, University of Edinburgh

1990

Wellcome Trust Research Fellow, Imperial College, London

1987

MRC Postdoctoral Research, Imperial College, London

1982

PhD, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine

1981

Completed BSc (Honours Zoology), University of Edinburgh