Schistosoma mansoni

Blood flukes of the genus Schistosoma (Platyhelminthes, Trematoda, Digenea) are responsible for the chronic debilitating disease schistosomiasis / bilharzia, widely considered to be second only to malaria as a global health problem and an incalculable drain on the economic development of endemic countries.

Since 1994, the World Health Organization has supported a genome initiative for Schistosoma, the Schistosoma Genome Network, aimed at identifying new targets for drug and vaccine development, understanding the molecular basis of parasite metabolism and development and determining biological variation. That initiative developed, and continues to develop, resources and datasets that have provided a firm foundation from which large scale mapping and sequencing efforts have been launched.

Data Downloads

[Hoffman laboratory]

Schistosoma mansoni possesses 7 pairs of autosomes and one pair of sex chromosomes (female = ZW, male = ZZ). Chromosomes range in size from 18 to 73 MB and can be distinguished by size, shape and C banding. A draft genome has been produced by the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute in collaboration with The Institute for Genomic Research using a whole genome shotgun sequencing strategy. Approximately 3.8 million pooled reads have been produced by the two genome centres and have been assembled using the Phusion assembly algorithm. The draft genome is 363Mb and encodes at least 11,809 genes. Further work is underway on the genome.

A first draft of the S. mansoni genome has been published (PMID:19606141) and is available for browsing from GeneDB. Sequencing is continuing and further assemblies will be available from this site, prior to publication.

In collaboration with Prof. Alan Wilson (University of York), expressed sequence tags from the following life cycle stages have been produced: day 21 liver worms (mouse host), day 28 liver worms (mouse), day 28 liver worms (rat), day 7 lung stage, intramolluscan germ ball, cercariae, day 3 schistosomule.

Further characterisation of the life cycle using high-thoughput second generation sequencing (RNA-Seq) is ongoing.


50 Helminth Genomes Initiative



Run Accession

3664Sman229274_1Bouton Batt, SenegalERR103049
3531Sman231352_5Makenene, CameroonERR103050
4229Sman229274_2Walukuba, Lake Albert, UgandaERR119615
4265Sman229274_2Buloosi, Lake Victoria, UgandaERR310936

Schistosoma mansoni smallRNA-Seq and strand specific RNA-seq



Run Accession

ap6_smallRNATest_sample11Puerto RicanERR346955
72hr_I_miRNA_testPuerto RicanERR352111
48hr_I_miRNA_testPuerto RicanERR352110
24hr_I_miRNA_testPuerto RicanERR352109
12hr_I_miRNA_testPuerto RicanERR352108
6hr_I_miRNA_testPuerto RicanERR352107
3hr_I_miRNA_testPuerto RicanERR352106
0hr_I_miRNA_testPuerto RicanERR352105
6hr_IIPuerto RicanERR411543
72hr_IIPuerto RicanERR411542
3hr_IIPuerto RicanERR411541
24hr_IIPuerto RicanERR411540
0hr_IIPuerto RicanERR411539
48hr_IPuerto RicanERR411538
12hr_IPuerto RicanERR411537
3hr_nPuerto RicanERR411536
3hr_IPuerto RicanERR411535
72hr_IPuerto RicanERR411534
12hr_nPuerto RicanERR411533
24hr_IPuerto RicanERR411532
6hr_IPuerto RicanERR411531
0hr_IPuerto RicanERR411530
6hr_IIIPuerto RicanERR411529
12hr_IIPuerto RicanERR411528
3hr_IIIPuerto RicanERR411527
3hr_n11Puerto RicanERR411526
48hr_IIPuerto RicanERR411525
12hr_IIIPuerto RicanERR411524
24hr_IIIPuerto RicanERR411523
48hr_IIIPuerto RicanERR411522
72hr_IIIPuerto RicanERR411521
12hr_III_miRNAPuerto RicanERR411564
12hr_II_miRNAPuerto RicanERR411563
72hr_II_miRNAPuerto RicanERR411562
6hr_II_miRNAPuerto RicanERR411560
3hr_III_miRNAPuerto RicanERR411558
3hr_II_miRNAPuerto RicanERR411557
24hr_II_miRNAPuerto RicanERR411556
0hr_II_miRNAPuerto RicanERR411555
72hr_III_miRNAPuerto RicanERR411554
12hr_I_miRNAPuerto RicanERR411553
72hr_I_miRNAPuerto RicanERR411551
48hr_I_miRNAPuerto RicanERR411549
24hr_III_miRNAPuerto RicanERR411548
3hr_I_miRNAPuerto RicanERR411547
0hr_III_miRNAPuerto RicanERR411546
24hr_I_miRNAPuerto RicanERR411545
0hr_I_miRNAPuerto RicanERR411544
6hr_I_miRNAPuerto RicanERR411550
6hr_III_miRNAPuerto RicanERR411552
48hr_III_miRNAPuerto RicanERR411561
48hr_II_miRNAPuerto RicanERR411559
  • A systematically improved high quality genome and transcriptome of the human blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni.

    Protasio AV, Tsai IJ, Babbage A, Nichol S, Hunt M, Aslett MA, De Silva N, Velarde GS, Anderson TJ, Clark RC, Davidson C, Dillon GP, Holroyd NE, LoVerde PT, Lloyd C, McQuillan J, Oliveira G, Otto TD, Parker-Manuel SJ, Quail MA, Wilson RA, Zerlotini A, Dunne DW and Berriman M

    PLoS neglected tropical diseases 2012;6;1;e1455

  • The genome of the blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni.

    Berriman M, Haas BJ, LoVerde PT, Wilson RA, Dillon GP, Cerqueira GC, Mashiyama ST, Al-Lazikani B, Andrade LF, Ashton PD, Aslett MA, Bartholomeu DC, Blandin G, Caffrey CR, Coghlan A, Coulson R, Day TA, Delcher A, DeMarco R, Djikeng A, Eyre T, Gamble JA, Ghedin E, Gu Y, Hertz-Fowler C, Hirai H, Hirai Y, Houston R, Ivens A, Johnston DA, Lacerda D, Macedo CD, McVeigh P, Ning Z, Oliveira G, Overington JP, Parkhill J, Pertea M, Pierce RJ, Protasio AV, Quail MA, Rajandream MA, Rogers J, Sajid M, Salzberg SL, Stanke M, Tivey AR, White O, Williams DL, Wortman J, Wu W, Zamanian M, Zerlotini A, Fraser-Liggett CM, Barrell BG and El-Sayed NM

    Nature 2009;460;7253;352-8

Data Use Statement

This sequencing centre plans on publishing the completed and annotated sequences in a peer-reviewed journal as soon as possible. Permission of the principal investigator should be obtained before publishing analyses of the sequence/open reading frames/genes on a chromosome or genome scale. See our data sharing policy.

Sequencing enquiries

Please address all sequencing enquiries to:

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