Citrobacter is a genus of Gram-negative enteric bacteria. It include Citrobacter rodentium whose cognate host is mice where it causes transmissible murine colonic hyperplasia, and is responsible for high mortality in suckling mice (Barthold et al., 1978; Schauer & Falkow, 1993; Schauer et al., 1995). Citrobacter species are widely distributed in nature, frequently present in soil and water, and can be readily isolated from human and animal faeces. However, unlike the host-adapted C. rodentium that causes gastrointestinal disease, the other Citrobacter species are opportunistic pathogens that cause a variety of extraintestinal infections (Luperchio & Schauer, 2001). Although disease caused by C. rodentium has been observed primarily in mice, this bacterium has also been reported to cause disease with a high rate of fatality in other rodents (de la Puente-Redondo et al., 1999). There are no reports of C. rodentium being pathogenic to humans.
C. rodentium is a member of the attaching and effacing (A/E) family of bacterial pathogens, which is characterised by intimate bacterial adherence to host intestinal epithelial cells, effacement of microvilli, and reorganisation of the host actin cytoskeleton to form pedestal-like extensions of epithelial cells beneath the adherent bacteria called A/E lesions (Wales et al., 2005). Gastrointestinal colonisation and formation of A/E lesions is mediated by a pathogenicity island called the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE), which is conserved among A/E bacteria (Deng et al., 2001; Wales et al., 2005). C. rodentium is unique amongst Citrobacter species in possessing the LEE (Schauer & Falkow, 1993; Schauer et al., 1995). As the only known A/E pathogen to naturally infect mice, it is a valuable model organism for the study of pathogenesis of the clinically significant human pathogens, enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) and enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC).
Gad Frankel Centre for Molecular Microbiology and Infection, Division of Cell and Molecular Biology, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ, UK.
Nicola Petty School of Chemistry and Molecular Biosciences University of Queensland Brisbane QLD 4072 Australia
We have reported the fully annotated genome sequence of a murine virulent strain of C. rodentium, ICC168. The genome is 5,346,659 bp in length, with an average G+C content of 54.72 % and is deposited in the EMBL/GenBank databases with accession number FN543502. Additionaly, three plasmids are also deposited in EMBL/GenBank with accession numbers FN543503, FN543504 and FN543505.
Shotgun and assembly data from this project are available from our FTP site.
The Sanger Institute has been funded by the Wellcome Trust to sequence the genome of Citrobacter freundii ballerup 7851.
The DNA sequence of Citrobacter freundii ballerup 7851 was obtained by 454 FLX pyrosequencing, assembled using the 454/Roche Newbler assembly program.
357 contigs (N50 contig size 60,237 bp) were obtained from 410,057 sequence reads with an average read length of 177 bp, to give a total sequence length of 4,904,659 bp. The data are available in the European Nucleotide Archive with accession ERA000106.
- Citrobacter rodentium transcriptomics (regulation)
- Citrobacter rodentium genome assembly
- Relationship of MLST structure of Escherichia coli species to genomic organisation complexity
- Defining EPEC: evolution, global distribution and effector inventory
- TraDIS Citrobacter rodentium
- TraDIS method optimisation and validation
- NCTC 3000
- Hospital acquired Klebsiella pneumoniae and the role of colonization and transmission (Australia)
- Sequencing Gram negative bacteria (HICF)
- Sequencing Citrobacter rodentium small colony variants (SCV)
- Bloodstream surveillence across Africas
- Lung Culturomics